The ‘Cybersecurity Doctrine of the Republic of Poland’ was adopted in 2015 by the National Security Bureau as a response to the increase in hybrid threats, propaganda, disinformation, and psychological influence operation by foreign states and non-state actors. The doctrine maps out tasks for state institutions, notably security agencies and armed forces, the private sector, as well as NGOs. The threats stemming from cyberspace and identified in the doctrine include cybercrime, i.e. “cyberviolence, destructive cyberprotests and cyber demonstrations,” attacks against telecommunications systems important for national security, data and ID theft, and the hijacking of private computers.