Academic sources

A Marwick, R Lewis , Media manipulation and disinformation online, New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2017 : The study analyses how internet subcultures take advantage of the current media ecosystem to manipulate news frames, set agendas, and propagate ideas.

D Fallis, What is disinformation?, 2015 : This paper surveys the various analyses of the concept of disinformation that have been proposed by information scientists and philosophers (most notably, Luciano Floridi).

C Wardle, H Derakhshan, Information Disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making, Council of Europe report, DGI (2017), 2017 : This report is an attempt to comprehensively examine information disorder and its related challenges, such as filter bubbles and echo chambers.

L Konstantinovskiy, O Price, M Babakar, Arkaitz Zubiaga, Towards automated factchecking: developing an annotation schema and benchmark for consistent automated claim detection, Full Fact, London, UK, 2018 : 
It is a collaborative work between Full Fact, an independent factchecking charity, and academic partners.  The work consists of identifying the set of sentences, out of a long text, deemed capable of being factchecked.

Prof. Divina Frau-Meigs, Societal costs of fake news in the digital single market, PE, 626.087- study requested by the IMCO Committee, European Parliament, December 2018 : This study explores the mechanisms of “fake news” and their societal costs in the Digital Single Market. It describes the risks to the integrity of information and to the integrity of elections. It highlights the roles of the various actors involved in the production and amplification of such information disorders. Finally, it outlines responses that are being tested in different parts of Europe to deal with the issue.

Jesse Shore, Jiye Baek and Chrysanthos Dellarocas, Network structure and patterns of information diversity on Twitter, Boston University Questrom School of Business, 2016 : Considering that users can choose whom to follow, prior research suggests that social media users exist in “echo chambers” or become polarized. The authors seek evidence of this in a complete cross section of hyperlinks posted on Twitter, using previously validated measures of the political slant of news sources to study information diversity.

Tucker, Joshua Aaron and Guess, Andrew and Barbera, Pablo and Vaccari, Cristian and Siegel, Alexandra and Sanovich, Sergey and Stukal, Denis and Nyhan, Brendan, Social media, political polarization, and political disinformation: A review of the scientific literature, March 19, 2018 :
The article presents an overview of the current state of the literature on the relationship between social media; political polarization; and political “disinformation,” a term used to encompass a wide range of types of information about politics found online, including “fake news,” rumors, deliberately factually incorrect information, inadvertently factually incorrect information, politically slanted information, and “hyperpartisan” news. 

Gordon Ramsay and Sam Robertshaw at Kings College London explore how media outlets perform a ‘damage control’ function for the Russian state: The report contains three separate analyses of English-language news content published by RT and Sputnik and its implications for news organisations in Western democracies. Together, the analyses comprise a comprehensive analysis of how Russian state-linked news outlets play a variety of roles in different situations, ranging from coordinating damage-control messaging, to amplifiers of Russian prestige and aggregators of negative content about Western domestic politics.

Claire Wardle, ‘Fake news, its complicated.’ : Useful overview
to understand the current information ecosystem.