Academic Sources

Last update on 24/07/2019

Theoretical Framework of Disinformation

AI and Disinformation

  • Konstantinovskiy et al. (2018). Towards automated fact-checking: developing an annotation schema and benchmark for consistent automated claim detection:  This is collaborative project between Full Fact, an independent fact-checking charity, and academic partners.  The work consists of identifying the set of sentences, out of a long text, deemed capable of being fact-checked.
  • Shore, Baek, and Dellarocas (2016). Network structure and patterns of information diversity on Twitter: Considering that users can choose whom to follow, prior research suggests that social media users exist in “echo chambers” or become polarized. The authors seek evidence of this in a complete cross-section of hyperlinks posted on Twitter, using previously validated measures of the political slant of news sources to study information diversity.
  • Ramsay and Robertshaw (2019). Weaponising news RT, Sputnik and targeted disinformation: The report contains three separate analyses of English-language news content published by RT and Sputnik and its implications for news organisations in Western democracies. Together, the analyses comprise a comprehensive analysis of how Russian state-linked news outlets play a variety of roles in different situations, ranging from coordinating damage-control messaging to amplifiers of Russian prestige and aggregators of negative content about Western domestic politics.

Tech Economy

  • McNamee (2019). ‘Zucked – Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe‘: The New York Times bestseller about a noted tech venture capitalist, early mentor to Mark Zuckerberg, and Facebook investor, who wakes up to the serious damage Facebook is doing to our society – and sets out to try to stop it.

Other Topics

  • Polyakova and Fried (2019). ‘Democratic Defence Against Disinformation’ for the Atlantic Council: This paper analyses the rapid development of policy responses of governments and social media companies to the challenge of disinformation.
  • Innes (2019). The Internet Research Agency in Europe 2014-2016: This report documents the scale of Russian interference in European democracies, and is evidence of the Kremlin-backed Internet Research Agency’s long-term interest in European politics and elections.
  • Frau-Meigs (2018). Societal costs of fake news in the digital single market, a study requested by the IMCO Committee, European Parliament (PE 626.087): This study explores the mechanisms of “fake news” and their societal costs in the Digital Single Market. It describes the risks to the integrity of information and to the integrity of elections. It highlights the roles of the various actors involved in the production and amplification of such information disorders. Finally, it outlines responses that are being tested in different parts of Europe to deal with the issue.
  • EU DisinfoLab for the European Parliamentary Research Service (2019). Automated tackling of disinformation: This study maps and analyses current and future threats from online misinformation, alongside currently adopted socio-technical and legal approaches. The challenges of evaluating their effectiveness and practical adoption are also discussed. Drawing on and complementing existing literature, the study summarises and analyses the findings of relevant journalistic and scientific studies and policy reports in relation to detecting, containing and countering online disinformation and propaganda campaigns. It traces recent developments and trends and identifies significant new or emerging challenges. It also addresses potential policy implications for the EU of current socio-technical solutions.
  • Valenzuela et al. (2019). The Paradox of Participation Versus Misinformation: Social Media, Political Engagement, and the Spread of Misinformation’‘ In this study, the authors argue that the effects of informational uses of social media on political participation are inextricable from its effects on misinformation sharing.
  • Institut Montaigne (2019). MEDIA POLARIZATION ‘À LA FRANÇAISE’? Comparing the French and American Ecosystems: This is a comparative analysis of the French and American ecosystems and the polarisation of their media. The report notes that the polarisation of the French media space is less aligned with political actors than that of American media, due to the multiplicity of political actors in France.

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